Information for victims and relatives

This information page on everything related to mental illnesses was created as part of the research on border sciences. Again and again, researchers pointed to psychological explanations. Many alleged paranormal experiences are most likely to be psychological disorders that require professional help.

This guide is intended to help sufferers and relatives to identify possible psychological disorders and whether professional help may be required. We strongly advise you to consult a doctor if there are signs. Stay away from providers who make curses disappear or cast out spirits!

This guide is not for self-diagnosis and does not replace a doctor's diagnosis!

What is a mental disorder?

A mental or emotional disorder is a pathological impairment of perception, thinking, feeling, behavior and processing of experiences or social relationships. It is part of the nature of these disorders that they are no longer or only partially accessible to the patient's voluntary control.



The Déjà-vu (French already seen) describes a psychological phenomenon (psychopathological term: qualitative memory disorder), which shows itself in the feeling that one has already experienced, seen but not dreamed of a new situation.

Other names for this experience are deception of memory (Sander), identifying falsification of memory (Kraeppelin), deception of familiarity, fausse reconnaissance (French false recognition), Déjà-entendu phenomenon or Déjà-écouté phenomenon (French already heard) or Déjà--vécu experience (French already experienced).

In healthy people, a Déjà-vu occurs spontaneously, in a state of exhaustion or in case of poisoning (especially with neurotoxins such as ethanol or hallucinogenic drugs). Déjà-vu experiences can also occur frequently as a side effect of neuroses, psychoses or organic brain diseases, especially of the temporal lobe. According to surveys, 50 to 90 percent of all people have had a Déjà-vu experience at least once, but mostly forget after a certain time where and when it last occurred.

The opposite of the Déjà-vu experience, the feeling of strangeness in a familiar environment, is called the Jamais vu experience (never seen in French) and can occur in similar circumstances.

In 1868, the German psychiatrist Julius Jensen is said to have introduced the term double perception for phenomena that are also known today as Déjà-vu. Wilhelm Sander is said to have proposed the term "deception of memory" for Jensen's description of double perception. The French philosopher E. Boirac is said to have used the word Déjà-vu in 1876 in his book L'Avenir des sciences psychiques (The future of the psychological sciences).

Various possibilities arise as explanatory theories: According to a hypothesis, a Déjà-vu occurs in situations that are reminiscent of a repressed, actually experienced event that was perceived so briefly that it could not be consciously registered. Another hypothesis is that repressed fantasies are the source of Déjà-vus. There may be special situations in which short and long-term memory are not coordinated for a moment.


Corruption of memories

Memory falsification means unintentional falsification of existing own memory content. It is differentiated from falsification of memories, the imaginative imagination of new own memory contents. Both processes differ from the deliberate misstatement (lie) in that the person remembering himself believes that the statement is correct. The self-deceptions described here are of great importance in psychiatry, in court, and in memory research.

A special form of counterfeiting are pseudo memories. According to Oskar Berndt Scholz and Johann Endres, this is not used to describe fantasized events but "successfully talked about but not experienced" events.

Corruption of memory has been the subject of psychological research for over 100 years and, more recently, it has also increasingly been the subject of neurophysiological research.

The review of statements that are suspected to have arisen in whole or in part due to memory falsification or pseudo memories is of enormous importance in criminal investigations and in court.

Signs: Alien abduction

Hallucinations e.g. hear voices

Hallucination is a perception without a demonstrable external stimulus basis. Such perceptions can occur in any sense area. This means, for example, that physically undetectable objects are seen or voices are heard without anyone speaking. Hallucinations can affect all senses. In the case of an illusion, on the other hand, a real situation is perceived differently: an actually existing fixed object appears to be moving or faces appear to be recognizable in irregular patterns.

Around ten percent of all people hear - occasionally or permanently - voices in their heads. Imaginative playmates are very common in childhood.

About 75 percent of all patients with schizophrenia hear voices. A third of all patients try to commit suicide - to commit suicide.

Signs: See the dead (appearances), hear voices.

Well-known personalities who heard voices: Socrates, Sigmund Freud, Charles Dickens, Winston Churchill, writer Enid Blyton, Hilfegard von Bingen, Robert Schumann, Jean D'Arc, Charlos Santana, writer Virginia Woolf.



Schizophrenic comes from the Greek and means something like split of the soul - not split into two personalities. They perceive sensory impressions that healthy people cannot understand. Affected people live in two adjacent worlds of perception, hence the schizophrenia. The term psychosis dates from the 19th century and derives from the word psychic, i.e. connected to the soul, so soul. Schizophrenia can be hereditary. Signs are:

Acoustic hallucinations such as banging, ringing or hearing voices, the commands: Throw yourself in front of the train.

Body hallucinations: The feeling of being controlled, persecuted or threatened.

Zen anesthesia: strange body feelings such as Ant walking on the back

Causes: Stressful circumstances such as the loss of a close person, contact disorders and associated isolation, conflict-ridden relationships, emotional disappointments, etc.

High suicide rate: 5 to 10 percent.

Therapy: very good chances of recovery. Don't just take the delusion away.

Signs: delusion of persecution, hallucinations, hearing voices, cursed, obsession, alien abduction

Relatives as a co-therapist can help by being patient and not too critical of the person concerned. Avoid hostile rejection, overprotection, or patronizing. Professional help is essential!


Multiple personalities

Dissociative identity disorder (DIS), also known as multiple personality disorder (MPS), is a dissociative disorder that affects the perception, memory and experience of one's own identity. It is considered the most severe form of dissociation. Patients have different, different ideas of themselves, whereby apparently different personalities emerge, who take control of the behavior alternately.The affected person either cannot remember the action of the other person (s) or only vaguely, or they experience it as the action of a stranger Consequential disorders are depression, anxiety, psychosomatic physical complaints, self-harm, eating disorders, addictions and relationship problems.

Developmental disorders in the brain due to extremely negative living conditions during childhood are regarded as the cause. Corresponding functional and anatomical changes in the brain have often been demonstrated in those affected in adulthood through statistical analysis of brain scans.

Signs: Different personalities, find them in an unknown place, strange clothes hang in the closet.

Causes can be manifold, from abuse, neglect to violence can trigger flight into other personalities. Be sure to seek professional help.



Borderline personality disorder (BPS) or emotionally unstable personality disorder of the borderline type is the name for a personality disorder that is characterized by impulsiveness and instability in relation to interpersonal relationships, mood and self-image. This disorder affects certain processes in the areas of feelings, thinking and acting. This affects negative and sometimes paradoxical behaviors in interpersonal relationships and towards oneself. The BPS is often accompanied by further burdens, e.g. high comorbidity with depression and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The word borderline was derived from the term borderland, with which C. H. Hughes in 1884 designated a border area to mental illnesses.

Modern operationalized diagnostics have largely detached themselves from these theory-based concepts. It describes patterns of experience and behavior that characterize the disorder, which is expressed in the fact that the term is included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Guide to Mental Disorders and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) by the World Health Organization (WHO) has been.



Sleepwalking, also somnambulism (from Latin somnus - sleep and ambular - hiking) or somnambulia, also known as moon addiction (lunatism), sleep walking or night walking, is a phenomenon in which the sleeper leaves the bed without waking up, walks around and some also perform activities. The respective incident usually lasts only a few minutes. It is a strange twilight state. It can appear spontaneously or provoked by external suggestive influence. This artificial creation of a somnambulistic state picture was first carried out by Marquis de Puysegur (1751-1825) and was described by him in 1784. Puysegur was a student of Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815). The French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and the French neuropsychiatrist Hippolyte Bernheim (1837-1919) were aware of the correspondence between spontaneous and provoked somnambulism as shown by Puysegur.


Speak in your sleep

Speaking while sleeping is called somniloquie. The spectrum of this parasomnia ranges from uttering undifferentiated sounds to the pronunciation of words and entire sentences.

Speaking usually occurs during sleep when switching between different stages of non-REM sleep, but can also occur during REM sleep, so that sentences you have dreamed are spoken out loud.

Somniloquia can be used alone or alongside other sleep disorders such as B. Somnambulism or Pavor nocturnus or Pavor diurnus occur. It occurs in about 50 percent of all children and usually disappears with puberty, but can also occur in adulthood (about 5 percent of adults speak in their sleep).

The somniloquia itself is harmless, but can disturb others in their sleep. It cannot be controlled by the sleeper, but psychological stressful situations, fever and alcohol influence are known to be beneficial factors. Treatment is usually not necessary.


Sleep paralysis

Sleep paralysis, also called sleep paralysis or sleep paralysis, is the paralysis of the skeletal muscles during sleep. In normal sleep, it is a natural phenomenon that prevents the movements experienced in the dream from being carried out. As a rule, it is not consciously perceived, since it disappears without delay when you wake up.

As a rule, however, the term sleep paralysis does not refer to paralysis during sleep, but rather a sleep disorder in which this paralysis is consciously experienced shortly before falling asleep (hypnagogic) or shortly after waking up (hypnopompic). This can go hand in hand with nightmarish experiences. It usually only lasts a few seconds, but is perceived by the person concerned as very scary.

Sleep paralysis is a common symptom of narcolepsy; but it also occurs in isolation with a family cluster. The therapeutic approach is based on the methods used in the treatment of narcolepsy.



Synesthesia is the coupling of two or more separate perceptions. An estimated 150,000 Germans suffer from synesthesia: linked sensory impressions. You can taste tones or feel colors.

Researchers from the Department of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the Medical University of Hanover (MHH) examined synesthesia patients and concluded: "Images of the brain from an MRI scanner are the best evidence that there is synesthesia." The phenomenon has been known for more than 300 years.

The people affected are not sick, but completely normal, they only have a different perception. For example, a patient felt the taste of soap when playing music in C major. Another feels uncomfortable touching the house when they hear loud noises.