Cryptozoology (Greek teaching of hidden animals) deals with - mostly dubious - reports from folklore, legends, eyewitness reports, footprints and blurry photos. Scientific zoology does not deal with such beings, even if the boundaries to cryptozoology sometimes blur when extinct or newly discovered animal species are found. Traditionally, cryptozoologists suspect that such reports are partly due to undiscovered animal species. Such a type is called cryptid in cryptozoology.
The term cryptozoology was coined in the 1940s and 1950s by Ivan T. Sanderson and the Belgian-French zoologist Bernhard Heuvelmans (1916-2001). Because of its central position, Heuvelmans is often referred to as the "father of cryptozoology". Even before the emergence of cryptozoology, others had dealt with the topic, such as Charles Fort. Cryptozoology is classified as a pseudoscience by outsiders. The International Society of Cryptozoology (ISC), which was founded in 1982 and has been inactive since around 2004, campaigned for cryptozoology to be recognized as a serious science. In 1997 Heuvelmans received the Gabriele Peters Award for Fantastic Science from the Zoological Museum at the University of Hamburg.
Mysterious deep sea
We know more about the universe than about our deep sea. Nuclear submarines reach depths of 1,000 to 2,000 meters. Sperm whales manage up to two hours to a depth of 3,000 meters. The robot "Kaiko" sent precise images from the marina trench (10,911m) for the first time in 1995. The greatest depth (11.521m, West Pacific) has never reached a diving boat ...
Reports of sea monsters are not just sailor's thread, but at their core they have real backgrounds. Examples are discovered travel squids with eight-meter long tentacles - they live in depths that only special diving boats can dive into. In these depths there are freezing temperatures, 400 degree hot sulfur springs and such tremendous pressure as if 1,000 elephants were sitting on a chest. The researchers agree: 99.5 percent of life takes place underwater - with an estimated 10 million species that no human has ever seen.
Bigfoot is a humanoid being of North American folklore of considerable size, with oversized feet and strong fur, which is said to have been sighted in almost all mountains in the USA and Canada, especially in the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains. However, alleged sightings are also reported from the Texas forest areas. Bigfoot is also called Sasquatch in Canada, which in the language of indigenous people there means "very hairy person".
Reports of Bigfoot go back to the 1850s, when Indians in Northern California reported such a being. Similar beings with different names are also reported in various areas of Asia, such as the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and India. In the media, the different beings are usually distinguished by a name prefix that designates the respective country.
Some cryptozoologists consider the Bigfoot, like the Yeti, to be a survivor of the extinct genus Gigantopithecus, others simply consider it a myth.
So far no generally accepted evidence for the existence of Bigfoot has been provided. Sound and video recordings either proved to be counterfeits or are very controversial.
The most famous is a 16mm film by Blatt Creek published by Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin in 1967, which shows a cryptozoological being that, according to skeptics, is a human in a gorilla costume.
In December 2002, Michael Wallace, the son of the late lumberjack entrepreneur and Bigfoot researcher Ray L. Wallace, stated that his father had been laying Bigfoot footprints with carved wooden feet since about 1958. The publication of Wallace's confessions and Michael Wallace's photos with large wooden feet in hand was well received in the American and international media.
In July 2008, two men claimed that they had found a Big Foot corpse in the northern forests of the US state of Georgia. As it became known on August 19, it was just a commercially available Bigfoot costume, which the two obviously frozen with fraudulent intent.
Loch Ness Monster
The Loch Ness Monster, also known as Nessie, is said to be an animal or group of animals that live in Loch Ness, a lake in Scotland near the city of Inverness. Nessie is usually described as a sea snake, up to 20 meters long.
Most scientists and experts, however, explain the reports of Nessie's existence as deliberate and unintentional false reports or misidentifications of ordinary animals. Regionally, the myth has become an important source of income as the lake is now one of the main tourist destinations in Scotland. During the summer slump, the monster appears regularly in the press headline. We do not want to go into the various theories that Nessie is a descendant of a Plesiosaurus that died out 150 million years ago.
In 2003, on behalf of the British BBC, a team of researchers with over 600 sonars and satellite navigation equipment surveyed the lake with the result that there is no monster in Loch Ness.
Researchers did an experiment: They sank a fence post in the lake. Right in front of a group of tourists, they pulled the fence post to the surface of the water. The researchers then asked the eyewitnesses what they saw: most reported a square object, while others reached for a pen and piece of paper and painted monster heads ...
A yeti or snowman is a two-legged, hairy mythical creature from the Himalayas. The Sherpa derive the term from Ye "Fels" and The "Tier". In Tibet the Yeti is called Migö (Wilder Mann) or Gang Mi (Gletschermann). The Lepcha have received many legends about the Yeti and call it Lomung (mountain spirit) or Chumung (snow spirit), where they worship him as the god of hunting and lord of all deer.
The Yeti is said to be between two and three meters tall and weigh over 200 kilograms, with footprints up to 43 centimeters long. Lepcha and Tibetans describe him as a monkey animal, with an egg-shaped and tapering skull and scanty, reddish hair. Alleged footprints in the snow are said to be found several times and from different expeditions at an altitude of 5,000-7,000 meters and tracked over longer distances.
Some zoologists and also the South Tyrolean mountaineer Reinhold Messner in his book Yeti - Legend and Reality take the view that the Yeti is identical to the Tibetan brown bear or Tibetan bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus). So, in some Himalayan languages, Yeti is the word for bear. The Japanese Makoto Nebuka came to a similar result in 2003 after twelve years of research in the Himalayas. This could belong to the Arctotherium family.
In 1960 Edmund Hillary and Marlin Perkins brought an alleged yeti scalp from a shot yeti, which turned out to be mountain goat skin during the examination.
Discovered animal species
In 1906 the largest butterfly in the world was discovered in New Guinea: the Queen Alexandra bird wing Ornithoptera alexandrae has a wingspan of almost 30 centimeters. Because it usually lives at a height of 20 to 30 meters, the first specimen of this type was not caught with a net, as is usual with butterflies, but was shot with a targeted shot.
In 1906 George Boulender described the largest frog in the world, the Goliath frog from West Africa, which can be over 30 centimeters tall and weigh almost four kilograms - the size of a big cat.
A Komodo dragon was shot for the first time in 1912 and made accessible to science. This finally proved the existence of those legendary "land crocodiles" and dragons, of which locals have been reporting for some time. The largest Komodo dragons ever caught were over three and a half meters long - only the slimmer Papuawaran of New Guinea, which can become over four meters long, is longer.
In 1951 the blomberg toad, the largest toad in the world, was discovered in Colombia, which can be 25 cm long and weigh over one kilogram.
In 1952, a Danish expedition brought out an animal from a depth of almost 4,000 meters that non-zoologists would hardly pay attention to, but which was a sensation for experts: Neopilina is a special mollusk - a living fossil from the group of monoplacophora or limpets that have been around for over 350 million years ago was considered extinct, a particularly primeval relative of shells, snails and squid.
Other myths of cryptozoology
We don't want to go into the multitude of myths here, just a small list of "monsters":
Sea monster Altamaha-ha
Sea monster Chessie
Ogopogo sea monster
List of Krytide:
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