Every year, thousands of so-called astrologers, card readers, clairvoyants and fortune tellers publish their predictions for the future. Blurred statements or statements with a prediction of fifty percent are common. Their predictions rarely really apply. A well-known example is the predictions of Nostradamus, the verses of which can be interpreted to refer to many past and future events.
In a test study published in 1988 on 12 well-known Dutch fortune tellers, who each held 13 counseling sessions for clients and made more than 10,000 statements, the hit rate was just 1 percent, which corresponds to the random expectation. Because with a control group of 12 pseudo-fortune tellers, i.e. H. People who had never claimed to have "supernatural" abilities and who only played the role of fortune tellers in the experiment had a comparable number of hits. Numerous other scientific studies have come to similar results.
Tricks from fortune tellers and clairvoyants
So-called astrologers and fortune tellers use opinion polls, general statements that apply to everyone (Barnum statements), closely monitor the person seeking advice (e.g. appearance and appearance, clothing, behavior, etc.). An feedback source from the person seeking advice (unconscious non-verbal reactions of a customer to the statements of the fortune teller, e.g. muscle twitches, minimal head and eye movements, facial expressions and gestures) are a source of information for the fortune teller.
The willingness to find a personal horoscope or divination "coherent" also appears to follow a need to decrease cognitive dissonance. (The American psychologist Leon Festinger explains how attitudes change and consolidate in 1957 using a theory of the same name.)
The Barnum effect, also called the Forer effect or deception through personal validation (English personal validation fallacy), originates from psychology and describes the tendency of people to accept vague and generally valid statements about themselves as the correct description.
The term Barnum effect was introduced by Paul Meehl and is named after the circus founder Phineas Taylor Barnum. This maintained a large cabinet of curiosities (American Museum), which should offer "every taste". The first research on this phenomenon took place in Germany and France in the 1920s and 1930s. Essential aspects of the Barnum effect were anticipated under the name "verification phenomenon".
Forers test series
In 1948, Iner 's classic experiment pretended to do a personality test with his students. Subsequently, he supposedly handed them the evaluations and asked them to rate the truth content with the numbers 0 (= does not apply at all) to 5 (= applies very well). The result was that the average student gave the evaluation 4.26 points. In fact, however, all students had to rate the exact same text, and Forer had compiled it from a horoscope available at the kiosk. Since then, the test has been repeated many times with the same text. The average value was around 4.
"You need the affection and admiration of others, and you tend to be self-critical. Although your personality has some weaknesses, you can generally compensate for them. You have considerable skills that lie idle instead of being used to your advantage controlled, you tend to feel anxious and insecure inside. Sometimes you seriously doubt the correctness of your actions and decisions, you prefer a certain amount of variety and change, and you are dissatisfied when you are restricted by prohibitions and restrictions proud of your independent thinking and not accepting other people's statements unprovenly. But consider yourself unwise to open yourself up to others. Sometimes you act extroverted, affable and open-minded, sometimes introverted, skeptical and reserved. Some of your desires seem sometimes rather unrealistic." — FORER ORIGINAL TEXT
All Barnum statements have in common that they always lack objectivity and falsifiability. Barnum statements can be found, for example, in newspaper horoscopes. The test series by the American psychologist Bertram R. Forer therefore also refer to newspaper horoscopes. They are also used in cold reading and fortune telling.
Typical contents of Barnum statements can be found in the following sentences:
Everyone longs for a safe environment. That is why fears should not be mentioned. Requests such as a secure job or a good relationship life are interpreted to match appropriate events. Both-and-statements are suitable: "Most of the time you are determined, but you always wrestle for adapted behavior". Unclear phrases such as "you tend to be lazy" (instead of "you are lazy today", which is either true or false). Suggested things: "Today you could hurt someone" suggests a possibility of injury and the reader looks for - and sometimes finds - a corresponding action. However, the reader is not told to look for evidence that would demonstrate the opposite.
Known Barnum statements
You like to be admired, like to be the center of attention. But you also have a realistic assessment of what you can do. You are rarely interested in your advantage over others. Often only you know what it looks like inside of you. You show the others what they should see. You don't always do the right thing. Sometimes you wish you could choose a second time. You are interested in many things. New things attract you, even though you don't let them determine you. You are more free and confident in your decisions. Many appreciate your kindness. You dislike lies and intrigue. Just like everything gray and dark in the world. If you can dream - of a green meadow, a blue sky and a lovely person by your side, then you are fine. Sometimes you have first doubts as to whether you made the right decision or did the right thing. They prefer a certain amount of change and variety and become unfree when restricted and restricted. They have found that it is unwise to openly disclose yourself to others. Usually self-controlled on the outside, you tend to be insecure internally. They take pride in thinking independently and do not accept what others say without satisfactory evidence. Although they have certain character weaknesses, you are generally able to compensate for them.
The French psychologist Michel Gauquelin examined the Barnum properties of astrological personality profiles. In 1968 Gauquelin sent 150 people he had recruited through a newspaper advertisement their "very personal horoscope". In fact, each person received the same text, a personality profile that astrologer Andre Barbault created based on the birth date of serial killer Marcel Petiot (although Barbault didn't know whose birth date it was). Astrological personality profiles have many characteristics of a Barnum text. Gauquelin asked the test subjects to answer several questions, including whether they would recognize themselves and their personal problems in this profile. 94% of the 150 test persons answered in the affirmative, 90% found the description very appropriate.
You are sometimes extroverted and open towards other people and sometimes introverted and reserved. Many people only know them superficially. They tend to doubt the correctness of their decisions every now and then. Some of your skills are idle and you are not fully using them. You want security and sometimes you feel fear that security is in danger. Your job is important to you and you value a good relationship. If you don't get the confirmation you expect from others, you tend to be self-critical. Sometimes your wishes and ideas seem unrealistic.
This text applies to 95 percent of all people.
French psychologist and statistician Michel Gauquelin examined more than 500,000 horoscopes and found no statistical clue that there was anything to be said about astrology and horoscopes.
Michel Gauquelin also carried out studies on the subject of "Barnum Effect": in 1979 he placed an advertisement in the "Ici Paris" newspaper and lured interested parties with a free, supposedly personal astrological horoscope analysis — and then sent everyone the same horoscope. 141 of the 150 participants who gave the first feedback nevertheless enthusiastically declared that the interpretation corresponded exactly to their personality. The macabre highlight: The horoscope selected was that of the mass murderer Marcel Petiot, who was executed in 1946.
German state-run WDR television repeated the experiment in 1997 with a computer horoscope by serial killer Fritz Haarmann, who was born in Hanover on October 25, 1879 at 6 p.m. Disguised as an astrological research group, they offered interested parties a personal horoscope. More than 200 interested parties took part. But they all received the same horoscope, that of the mass murderer Fritz Haarmann, who brutally killed 24 young men in the 1930s — a person with whom no one would like to identify. Those interested should evaluate the horoscope on a questionnaire: When asked "Do you recognize yourself in this horoscope?" The result: 76 percent of all interested parties answered with "Yes, my character is described correctly" or even with "Perfect, everything is correct" (15 percent) and only 9 percent stated that the horoscope did not fit at all.
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Your personal horoscope
They approach the world carefully. You need time to adapt to new situations because you love the security of the familiar and the tried and tested. The floor under your feet has to support. Until its reliability has been proven, do not enter it. Once you have entered it, you are reluctant to leave it.
Your strength is your patience, you can wait for something to grow. You have an understanding of growth processes at all. You will surely set it up to have a garden, not necessarily so that you can diligently grow your vegetables in it, but rather for the sake of enjoyment, that you can step out of your apartment and into nature. You are a connoisseur and love comfort, preferably the grapes should grow in your mouth. You are not ready to make great efforts to enjoy, you do not need sophistication to feel good, you love the simple, down-to-earth.
Your persistence can also turn into stubbornness when something comes to you that requires change from you. They then fear for your safety and simply remain in your position in the hope that the threat will pass.
Daily work is a good opportunity for you to develop and differentiate your skills. You experience your creative power in fine tuning, so to speak, and put it at the service of order, accuracy, care and good quality. They love doing things well that need to be done. Your creation is in the details.
Health and dealing with the functions of the body are also areas in which you can get involved. Perhaps a serious illness - for yourself or for a close person - gives you the reason and the reason to engage intensively and creatively with healing methods. You only really become aware of the importance of the physical strength that is otherwise taken for granted when it no longer works. You learn to appreciate your body and get a more mindful relationship with it and treat it with more care. The connection with mental processes and inner problems can also arouse your interest and lead you to new knowledge about the interaction of body, mind and soul. The gratitude that comes from it and the feeling of leading a useful life can create great satisfaction in your life.
You get to the roots of your identity by descending into the depths of the human psyche. You are looking for the Philosopher's Stone, and to find it you have to make gold out of lead and climb into the crucible yourself. The process does not work from an uninvolved distance. You are a deep researcher of life and have what it takes to descend into "hell" yourself because you are capable of passionate love and merciless truth. You stick right in the middle of festering wounds, if need be, because your transformative healing power consists in plucking out the evil with a stump and a stick. With a keen sense of crime, you get to the starting point, where all the threads of the underlying motivational network of the human soul begin.
The most important tools are your love, your power and your knowledge. Your own alchemical process is to merge these three forces into one that protects you from abuse. To be effective, you must use your love wisely and powerfully, your power wisely and lovingly, and your knowledge with power and love. In this way you can turn the darkness of your soul into light and gain a new life.
They have a strong urge to free themselves from old role expectations and are rebellious against the traditional, often constricting family structures. Your idea of ??family has to do with affinity and equality, your friends are often closer to you than your family of origin. If you choose an even larger frame, you will feel part of the human family.
To express your mental identity, you love a certain eccentricity. You are also looking for the unconventional, extraordinary and future-oriented in your lifestyle and hobbies. For you, emancipation, equality and freedom are words that are filled with emotional content. You can get involved there.
You get your feeling of security from your group membership. You feel at home there, be it at work or in your free time. Friendship is very important to you. However, a certain emotional distance is all right for you, you don't like it to be "emotional". This may be due to fears of contact that have their roots in your childhood. The proximity of your mother was uncertain, unpredictable, suddenly she was there and the next moment she could turn away and leave you to your own devices. In order not to feel this change pool of closeness and distance and the fear of loss associated with it, you preferred to keep your distance. The real liberation, however, is to allow real closeness and still be independent.
Your inner nature is extremely subtle and sensitive. It was certainly not easy to accept in childhood and adolescence. You may have been called "mimosa" in the sense of an accusation, and, as if your fine antennas and sensations had no justification, you tried "not to do so". A mimosa is a wonderful, delicate plant that needs gentle treatment and curls up when touched roughly. This is your protection. Respect your own thinness and sensitivity, and provide the treatment that is good for your nature! Small, subtle stimuli are more likely to develop than strong ones. You need relaxation in order to be able to trace everything that you feel and intuitively grasp.
Since you perceive the finest nuances, you need time and space for yourself to find out what is your own and what is flooding or infiltrating you from the outside, because you are so emotionally connected to everything that it is difficult to distinguish yourself. If you overcome your victimization and penance, then no one can subtly attach your unresolved misery to you. Do not fall for others' miserable stories and the guilt you feel as a result. Instead, strengthen your understanding that your intuition and sensitivity are great strengths that you can use to help yourself and others constructively. You are a harp and not a trumpet, with their delicate tones you can enchant your environment and bring something into the world that does not seem to be out of this world.
Your thinking is about the daily work that you do, be it at work or in your private life. You are interested in sensible organizational structures and are looking for economical working methods that meet your need for correctness and perfection. You like to have your workplace tidy and clear and don't like it when someone else messes up your system.
You work precisely and thoroughly and do your work bit by bit. If too many tasks come at you at once, you can panic because you fear you won't be able to do it. The best way to do this is to continue your tried and tested method of doing one thing at a time, because it is not eaten as hot as it is cooked.
Your interest may also concern health issues, such as how to keep your body fit and healthy. However, you could also turn to the inner level and study the connections between body and soul. All unexpressed feelings and conflicts can lead to psychosomatic complaints. Use your communication skills to express everything that moves you and thus also to create order internally. So you stay healthy.
You have a pervasive mind, and with a more dramatic world inside, and you may experience the possibility of completely new roles. You identify with the artists or the content on offer, let your imagination and emotions play, grow beyond your "normal size" for moments and experience how the stream of creative power flows through you.
In your relationships, you have a need for authenticity and quality. You don't plunge head over heels into a love affair, but examine everything carefully, especially your own feelings, before you delve deeper. You are realistic, smart and sober.
If you are a woman, you do not need to nestle up and close your eyes for fear of being helpless and alone. They are very efficient and skillful and have a differentiated, clear and incorruptible mind. With this, you take a close look at your counterpart. And you get everything, every little detail, every little gesture, especially what the other person wants to hide. They are also not afraid to ask exactly. As a man, you are sensitive to these qualities.
Feelings and passion are a little scary to your analytical mind. You have no ready-to-use instructions for this area. When you get involved, you always keep a certain observer distance. You also want to know how it works here.
When you meet other people, you show a certain brittle reserve. They are very correct and factually accurate, sensitive and differentiated. They prefer intellectual exchange and are reluctant to express their feelings. Express your affection through the offer of your willingness to help and draw attention to practical things.
Your energy to go forward and develop initiative is hidden behind a veil and hardly palpable even for you. It's like your inner hero is sitting behind closed doors and is forced to use his extroverted power inside. Nevertheless, your assertiveness and your will are there and very much alive.
If you are not aware of this, you may often experience yourself incapable of action, doomed to passivity, passed out and confused. A vague dissatisfaction gnaws at you, you don't really know where to go. Sometimes you get a corner of your strength and the next moment it eludes you again. The most healing thing in this situation is for you to train your meditative talent and to observe your emotions and impulses with inner mindfulness. So you get out of feeling trapped.
Most of the time, you don't even know that you have aggression until one day it explodes explosively and leads to uncontrolled behaviors that shake you and that you regret when you've broken shards. Your latent discontent can also provoke others to act out your anger on your behalf. Afterwards you feel liberated like after a thunderstorm.
On the positive side, you can book your willingness to help. For someone you like very much, you can step into the background with your own needs and stand up for the cause of the other. In general, it is a good way for you to subordinate your energy to a higher goal and serve it. Then you will experience guidance and guidance of your hidden drives without your angry ego being offended.
Your energy for action flows in quiet channels. You are not someone who makes hectic movements to achieve something. You would rather wait until the opportunity is favorable and you get the most out of it with the least possible effort. Your actions are designed for the long term. You want reliability and duration.
You are a connoisseur, also in erotic terms. They are sensual and love touch and skin contact. They are steadfast in their care and satisfied when everything runs smoothly. They love fixed habits so that you don't have to readjust yourself again and again, but can fall back on something familiar.
You also use your activities to create a solid financial situation. You are cost-conscious and do nothing if there is no visible benefit for you. Since you are comfortable, do not tear your leg, but work on your progress in peace. You would prefer to sit in a deck chair by the swimming pool, knowing that your money will work for you in the meantime.
In the event of a conflict, you have considerable patience and calm, and it takes a long time for your collar to burst. If he does, however, you will see red and then there is no stopping. Your loyalty also endures a lot until the thread breaks, then there is no going back.
You have gone through many experiences to recognize yourself in your very own potential, which you now want to contribute to society as your contribution. The characteristics of your family background and your cultural environment first gave your personality an orientation and a reference. In the course of your further growth, in the mirror of meeting other people and in the experience of love and partnership, you have revised and expanded your original self-definition, freed yourself from external determination and "honed" your skills and talents so far that you now know who You are and what is your contribution to the whole
You are no longer the child who obeyed earlier and was oriented towards other authorities, but you would like to represent yourself as an authority in your field and be respected and rewarded as such. Your job should match your personality and what you feel called to, so that you are motivated from your center and have the desired success. You used to look up at others to get your bearings. Now experience yourself as a point of reference for others. You are responsible for presenting your inner and outer position to the public. You step out of anonymity.
Achieving your goal in life and finding your recognized place in society demands a lot of patience, tenacity, perseverance and discipline from you. Just like Rome was not built in a day, your path to a successful career may be lined with many obstacles, delays and difficult, responsible tasks and initially not bring much fame, because your performance is not spectacular and will not be so appreciated how she deserved it. Your journey to zenith can be long, but the harvest is big.
In the beginning, the many responsibilities may go against your grain, because in a way you don't want to stop being a child, free from chores. And yet you feel drawn to the idea of ??holding a significant position or making a significant contribution to society. Perhaps you will experience these qualities first in a partner who occupies such a position. But over time you get frustrated because you want to achieve it yourself. This insight motivates you to take on all the difficulties and pursue your path with determination until you find the position and meaning in your life that satisfies you. With all the effort, it is important that you go your way according to your real assets and needs, not out of role expectations and prestige considerations. Only if you get the motivation from your innermost core will you experience the happiness of being able to do this work.
YOUR OWN PERSONAL HOROSHOP
was the horoscope of serial killer Fritz Haarmann.
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